Quite often, an ordinary user has to face the need to demonstrate certain “sysadmin” skills in servicing system components. One of the most common causes is a broken Internet cable or a broken connector that causes an unstable Internet connection, or simply a desire to create a local network between devices. In general, the repair or creation of the so-called "twisted pair" is not very complex and does not require serious technical knowledge, and to achieve our plans you can do with a few of the most common tools. In this article, we will talk about the existing methods of crimping the Internet cable, and also what a crimper is, can the cable be crimped only with a screwdriver, and how to prevent breakage of connectors and cable breakage.
Correct compression of the Internet cable is twisted pair.
Twisted pair: crimping and assignment schemes
Going into detail about the history of the creation and development of modifications of the type of compound under consideration does not currently make sense, since this does not play a significant role for the topic of the article. The only thing worth noting is the need to determine the choice of cable category before starting the crimping work. Currently, the “5e” category received the most activity, allowing to achieve a data transfer rate of 1000 Mbps. But the development of Internet technologies is forced by periods to pay attention and increased categories (6; 6a; 7a; 8 / 8, 1; 8, 2) with higher throughput rates. So, there are two main types of crimping:
- direct - used to connect the network port of the device with a router / switch / hub;
- cross - is used to directly connect two network ports of computers.
The connector mentioned above, which is also a plug, has an “8P8C” connector of the “RJ45” standard and can be found in any computer store. Cable standard "5e", as already mentioned earlier, this is the most common form, can be used in two main variations:
- use 4 pairs (8 wires) to achieve data rates up to 1000 Mbps;
- use 2 pairs (4 wires) with a total speed of up to 100 Mbps.
The use of two-pair crimping with the current data transmission standards is simply meaningless, therefore, it is not subject to review.
A direct crimping scheme, in a more simplified language, is necessary to provide Internet connection to network devices (routers) computers, televisions, game consoles, etc. This category is divided into two standards:
- TIA / EIA-568A;
- TIA / EIA-568B.
In practice, “568B” is more often used, and the order of distribution of wires by colors is as follows: white-orange - orange - white-green - blue - white-blue - green - white-brown - brown. It is worth memorizing once, and in the future the scheme is no longer needed.
As already announced above, a crossover or crossover cable is used to directly connect two devices of the same type, a computer - a computer, a switch - a switch, etc. Now such a connection has lost its relevance due to the development of Auto-MDI (X) - an interface Allows automatic configuration of reception and transmission of signals, which ensures uninterrupted connection of network devices with a switching cable without the need for a “crossover” or a null modem. Such a compression scheme is implemented by combining the above-mentioned TIA / EIA-568B standards on the one hand and TIA / EIA-568A on the other.
It should be understood that such a connection is limited in data transfer rate up to 100 Mbit / s, in order to achieve a speed indicator of 1000 Mbit / s, a different approach will be required. On the one hand, the “TIA / EIA-568B” standard is used, and on the other, the distribution of wires is as follows: white-green - green - white-orange - white-brown - brown - orange - blue - white-blue.
So, having figured out how the final result will be used, it is necessary to proceed directly to compression. For this, in most cases, a special key / pincer called a “crimper” is used, which can also be purchased at computer stores, but this tool is solid enough, on average starting at 1, 000 rubles. Of course, given the fact that the creation of the type of connection in question may be required only once in a lifetime, the acquisition of a “crimper” will not always and not for everyone become the optimal investment of money. Therefore, in this article there will be two main ways to crimp a network cable:
- involves the use of the above key;
- use, in fact, improvised tools that are available in every average home.
So, in the presence of a specialized key, you will need several more (at least) 8R8C plugs with an RJ45 interface, which were discussed above. For safety net, you should stock them, taking into account that difficulties may arise during compression and you will have to use another connector. The compression process itself is as follows:
- Prepare the cable of the desired length, laying in it the possible nuances of laying and a dozen centimeters for stripping insulation (with a margin);
- In almost every household krimper, except for the clamping block, there are both insulation strippers and pliers for cutting the wires. Using the mentioned puller, remove the outer insulation from the cable and “free” the four pairs of wires enclosed in it.
- About 2 centimeters should remain uninsulated. Unwind the pairs and set the wiring according to the color scheme, for example, with the standard "TIA / EIA-568B" this is white-orange - orange - white-green - blue - white-blue - green - white-brown - brown.
- Check the correct distribution of the wires of free 2 centimeters and, using pliers, cut a little less than a centimeter so that all uninsulated wires are inside the plug.
- Put the connector in front of you with the contacts up (the latch looks down) and carefully insert the wiring under each of the eight pins. This should be done carefully and without haste, in order to avoid unnecessary twisting.
- On the crimper there are peculiar ports, one of them for the interface "RJ45", the other for "RJ11 / RJ1". To confuse them is quite problematic, since they are signed and have a different size. Insert the connector into the port and slowly, but with the use of force, squeeze the handles of the crimper until the characteristic sound of the ratchet, which signals the success of the compression.
- If necessary, repeat the above algorithm of actions on the other side and check the operation.
As it can be clearly seen, everything is extremely simple with the crimp and requires almost no effort.
As mentioned above, it is far from always there is a point in acquiring this specialized key, since sometimes it is just necessary to change the connector once or to increase the cable. Therefore, for such a one-time crimping, you can also use common tools - these are ordinary pliers or nippers, and in the absence of these, you can do with a knife, as well as a conventional slotted screwdriver or scissors. The procedure itself is not much different from the above:
- Carefully remove the insulation with a pair of pliers or a knife, and make sure that the insulation of the wire itself remains untouched.
- Expose the wiring in accordance with the chosen scheme and cut off the excess with a knife, nippers or pliers.
- Turn the plug with the latch down and also gently insert the veins under the contacts until it stops.
- These contacts can be called knives in a different way, or they are referred to as "lamella" in technical language. The essence of the crimping process is that these knives must pierce each of the 8 (or using two pair - four) veins. Therefore, put the plug in the most convenient way for you and with the help of a slotted screwdriver or scissors gently, but with a force push the knives into the wiring that they pierced them and turned out to be depressed. In case of insufficient efforts, difficulties are possible with the subsequent connection of the plug to the network port of the device.
- Finally, press the cable retainer onto the connector for a tighter connection and test the performance of the result.
In fact, there is also nothing supernatural and extremely complex, all that is required is a couple of minutes of concentration and the skill of using improvised means.
The last thing worth noting is the existence of tool-free connectors for which no compression is required, but rather just remove the insulation and insert the cores into the special connectors on the plugs and close them. But, unfortunately, to find such connectors is quite problematic due to their increased cost and the small amount available on the market.